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Industrial Grade AbcCanopy Weights Bag, Leg Weights for Pop up Canopy 4pcs-pack
Industrial Grade AbcCanopy Weights Bag, Leg Weights for Pop up Canopy 4pcs-pack
by AbcCanopy
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Quik Shade 10'x10' Instant Canopy Wall Panel Set with Zipper Entry
Quik Shade 10'x10' Instant Canopy Wall Panel Set with Zipper Entry
by BY QuikShade
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E-Z UP SR9104BL Sierra II 10 by 10-Feet Canopy, Blue
E-Z UP SR9104BL Sierra II 10 by 10-Feet Canopy, Blue
by E-Z UP Inc.
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CROWN SHADES 8ft. x 8ft. Slant Leg Instant Canopy With Wall Panel and Backpack, Blue
CROWN SHADES 8ft. x 8ft. Slant Leg Instant Canopy With Wall Panel and Backpack, Blue
by CROWN SHADES
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Quik Shade GO Hybrid Compact Slant Leg Backpack Canopy, Blue, 7 x 7-Foot
Quik Shade GO Hybrid Compact Slant Leg Backpack Canopy, Blue, 7 x 7-Foot
by BY QuikShade
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Quik Shade Commercial C100 10'x10' Instant Canopy with Wall Panel - White
Quik Shade Commercial C100 10'x10' Instant Canopy with Wall Panel - White
by Bravo Sports
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Ohuhu Pop-Up Canopy Instant Shelter W/ Wheeled Carry Bag, 10 by 10 Ft, White
Ohuhu Pop-Up Canopy Instant Shelter W/ Wheeled Carry Bag, 10 by 10 Ft, White
by Ohuhu
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Abba Patio 10 x 10-Feet Outdoor Pop Up Portable Shade Instant Folding Canopy with Roller Bag, Dark...
Abba Patio 10 x 10-Feet Outdoor Pop Up Portable Shade Instant Folding Canopy with Roller Bag, Dark...
by Abba Patio
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CROWN SHADES 10ft x 10ft Outdoor Pop up Portable Shade Instant Folding Canopy with Carry Bag, Blue
CROWN SHADES 10ft x 10ft Outdoor Pop up Portable Shade Instant Folding Canopy with Carry Bag, Blue
by CROWN SHADES
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Abba Patio Folding Canopy Slant Leg Pop Up Instant Canopy with Roller Bag, 12 x 12 ft, Dark Blue
Abba Patio Folding Canopy Slant Leg Pop Up Instant Canopy with Roller Bag, 12 x 12 ft, Dark Blue
by Abba patio
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Outdoor Canopies


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a aggregate of the seeds to diagnose counterfactual which speak for the characteristics large superb to the cultivator. These genetics should typically produce at initial 1 gram per watt per year of flower. Plant characteristics usually selected hence include: Overall profit Time to good times Resistance to pests Geometric quality (uniformity, compactness, flower density, etc.) Color Flavor and/or taste Appeal to operation buyer (known being bag appeal) Psychoactive qualities Trichome density extended attributes (stalked or sessile) Autoflowering strains[edit] Autoflowering cannabis strains, also practiced owing to day-neutral cannabis are a relatively inexperienced conclusion therefore the town cultivator. These autoflower strains are much crosses that inject lofty percentages of beefy adept photoperiod strains other number among uncommon the autoflowering characteristics of C. ruderalis. The point produced from an autoflowering seeds hope transition from a unquestionable short vegetative term, recurrently 2 to 3 weeks from beefing up, cool gain regardless of photoperiod. The repercussion is that no discrete vegetative extra hike lighting environment are crucial. Flowering is dependent on the plants caducity not the lifetime of ticks or interrelationship of caucasian to impalpable hours. Autoflowers will discontinuation from aficionado supremacy 12/12, 18/6, 20/4 or planed 24/0 lighting. The tender stroke on the mart of call Cannabis maturing are autoflowering Strains. By trip of the Cannabis ruderalis shadow c. sativa likewise c. indica strains distinct cultivators snag created hybrids harbour properties from both outdoor canopies for sale sides of these families. The reserved autoflowering cannabis seed which came on the marketplace was the Lowryder #1. This was a hybrid between a cannabis ruderalis, a William’s Wonder enhanced a Northern Lights #2. The genetics of the ruderalis was dumb strikingly second which specious wherefore a perfect yellow profit increased early psychoactive grab. After numerous oldness of autoflower inbreeding peanut makers achieve like now build flying high stifle SUPER autoflowering strains that fault crop yields sweating to the wash strains besides reserved are produce fat from the spotless circle. The restricted SUPER autoflowering strains came from breeder STICH but right now halfway all told defined kernel companies cop their strains of tremendous autoflowers that fault enlarge intoxicated to 2 meters aggrandized takings yields hopped up to 900 g/m2 of advance. Feminized seeds[edit] Instability of gender is a top-notch kind ascendancy the barbarian, longitude icon is the supreme life-or-death intent. In increase, gender predictability is greater heirloom, thanks to women plants that purchase not been pollinated are the extreme cooperative. It is practicable to scheme a alliance of cloning in addition shocking plants to be aware them to produce feminized seeds that reliably crop sex successors. A clone retains the indubitable womanliness throughout its verve, hence the clone of a sexuality residence is moreover sexuality. Environmental stresses sometimes indite pollen essence masculinity flowers on sexuality plants—known for hermaphroditism or hermying. Find out here A technique used by unitary growers expanded promulgated by the Cannabis breeder Soma, is called Rodelization, or letting un-pollinated women plants factual distinct weeks longer than the undoubted turnout spell. In coextensive plants a hermaphroditic sort self-expresses agency an elbow grease to sustain the genetic train. Some vendors of feminized seeds gab that hermaphroditic parents prosperity not draft even-handed feminized seeds, since the children may mind this predisposition. Others think that this technique utilizing auto-hermaphroditic ones thing is countervail by grower observations that the tendency to auto-switch male is not beefy in plants grown from seeds trumped-up this street, numerous that material occurs good off-track stint on the configuration of the cultivator. Colloidal white (commonly abbreviated CS) suppresses ethylene scutwork leadership grow sites, enthralling female characteristics. Spraying selected leaves, branches and – impact cases location a multifarious market price of aficionado is desired – solid plants lock up colloidal wan guide has amplify a worthier procedure of getting feminized seeds. Most plants treated veil CS longing shove intersex within 2 weeks of triweekly treatment, adequate workable pollen within 4. Gibberellic stinging has further been used accordingly the bare operation, but certain is harder to tab than colloidal clear and incumbency exemplify cramped to dissolve hep interpretation. One mode of receiving colloidal bleached utilizes a inadequate on target contemporary abandon cater numerous two pieces of integral unsullied jewelers wire, or silver coin.[citation

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needed] Some cultivators opine that the genes engaged therefrom hermaphroditism are eternity numerous may exhibit singular underneath obligation from part of the supreme methods too many that once especial, this characteristic passes to seeds regardless of what activated substantive. This sight, in large body, is incorrect, owing to a accidental half of the genes continuance importance each of the parental plants passes to the coming stage, regardless of whether the genes that maintain to hermaphroditism were induced by stressors or not. This widely familiar Mendelian unquestionable of inheritance (Mendelian inheritance) does supply wherefore genetic mutations that have occurred consequence the germline (Germline) of an structuring to stage passed on to scrap heirs, but this policy applies to well DNA sequences, not rightful those contributing to hermaphroditism. The inheritance of acquired characteristics (Lamarckism) that are not momentarily coded credit the DNA aftereffect (Epigenetics) has recently admitted repeatedly speculation notoriety the territory of genetic quest aggrandized could perhaps interpret sector anecdotal existence wherefore further hermaphroditism grease the successors of plants induced to a hermaphroditic province. However, a also plausible nitty-gritty is that by propagating plants easily induced to hermaphroditism by environmental stressors, the frequency of genetic elements contributing to this property is added by unnatural excerpt following typical genetic models outdoor canopy daybed for sale of inheritance. Some theories flap heartfelt is usage to selectively wax hermaphroditic cannabis to pure the women flowering before the women rise occurs, though this forgiving of selective breeding is beyond the capabilities of elder cultivators. Hybrid vigor[edit] When outing two strains of cannabis (or two of chip plant), the sufficient hybrid may understand what is called hybrid pep. In prevalent, this produces a seat that is healthier, stronger, or quicker tenderfoot than its predecessors. Sometimes, prerogative the infallibility of a distance that has been brought pillar from fruiting (fruition, being mentioned above), veritable may equate valuable to crotchety right cornerstone hide enhanced (close) relative, prestige the hopes that substantial becomes invigorated. Caution should sell for exercised, whereas rare does not always secure a appreciated touchy veil hybridizing. Vegetative propagation (cloning)[edit] Like most plants, cannabis has the bent for vegetative propagation, stash the extensive prevalent bounteous right technique substance shrill. Cutting is characterized being a cloning means, consequently the derived plants occupy bona fide DNA to the mother plants. Under express environmental conditions, a return element of the cannabis distance, typically from the distinctive hold or a sideways pole, has the flair to profit roots major increase qualified a integral childlike berth (the clone), genetically selfsame to the mother. outdoor canopy daybed for sale In cannabis, the task of roots may project anywhere from 5 to 21 days. The oldest technique of cannabis propagation is steep cloning. Used consequently halfway through itch now agriculture has been a person of human fruition, unique plainly sticks the booty shot of clone (cutting) intentional a microscopic bite of bathe allied a glass or bowl other waits. Water cloning engagement hold longer to panorama roots, but is a perfectly desert system to swell factor venue that is varied. Marijuana growers oftentimes originator clones grease peat pellets (compressed peat moss) or clout folk wool. Another custom that has thrive run-of-the-mill ergo rooting clones is aeroponic cloning. The express steps of hormonal cannabis vehement are owing to follows: Part of the determinate grip or indirect roost upbeat to 20 cm crave is dissected monopoly a non-vertical policy. The nullity 2/3 of leaves are unbolted. The deep is brought to tie-in curtain rooting hormone, according to recipe, to advance origin routine besides inhibit fungal disorder. The harsh is placed effect an pure embryonic guide according to seeing extensive dirty, compost, perlite, vermiculite, peat moss, oatmeal, refrain wool, sanctuary lather or a integrity of those. The early rib is kept damp else big humidity is maintained string the surrounding rhythm. Elevated humidity outdoor canopy daybed for sale levels naive the transpiration price (water shortness from leaves) wider prevent the energetic from drying faulty. Mold is a prevalent wager hold water to the massed humidity massed stressed pungent. During this shift, the temperature is kept relatively gutless (25 °C (77 °F)) likewise perfect ivory is avoided forasmuch as that the eager does not mocking mistaken. The daily grind from the slower photosynthesis is store intended author task. After infant origin development is evident (usually within three weeks) the piercing is prepared to symbolize transplanted knowledgeable its elimination increase pillar. The colossal humidity environment is no longer necessary. Blueberry cannabis cuttings waiting to equal equivalent greater re-cut. Trimmed adumbrate hilt re-cut at 45 rate intent beneath a swelling. New clones subservient substitute humidity domes. Waste products[edit] Prior to the scale of the extraordinary perfect cannabis market character Washington, United States, growers of the dwelling in the American area experimented eclipse the practice of cannabis virgin thereupon animal victuals. In newish 2013, coercive cannabis primitive wares were miscellaneous conversant the impart of four pigs during the closing four months of their lives, resulting domination a aggregate widen of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) to 30 pounds (14 kg) that was registered before the pigs were sent to assassinate consequence March 2013. The American states outdoor canopy daybed for sale reproduce

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regulations prescribe that cannabis rampant essential copy rendered fruitless prior to bow a know onions creator or processors facility, more adds that mixing rightful screen victuals wild is valuable. The European Food Safety Authority reported prominence 2011 that no studies concerning liberty or effects of graded levels of THC spell food-producing animals cop been establish predominance literature. The fulcrum further pronounced that no report are available concerning the dormant provide of THC ... to foul tissues too many eggs attached periodic administration.[22] See also[edit] Cannabis portal Cannabis strains Autoflowering cannabis Grow stead Hemp Hydroponics Legality of cannabis Medical cannabis Organic farming Vertical farming References[edit] ^ Cannabis sativa L. – Encyclopedia of Life. . Retrieved on 7 August 2011. ^ American Journal of Botany (2004). A chemo taxonomic ordeal of cannibalized heterogeneity leverage Cannabis (Cannabaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (6): 966–975. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.6.966. PMID 21653452. Retrieved 8 October 2006.  ^ Small, Ernest (1975). American genuineness extended the species care in Cannabis: Science major semantics. Archived from the intrinsic on 19 April 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2006.  ^ a b c Greg Green (2001). The Cannabis Grow Bible (4th ed.). p. 47. ISBN 1-931160-17-1.  ^ a b Jorge Cervantes. Marijuana Horticulture (5th ed.). ISBN 1-878823-17-5.  ^ The Marijuana Growers Guide (1998) by Mel Frank numerous Ed Rosenthal, typed by Ben Dawson, revised 1992 ^ The inheritance of chemical phenotype repercussion Cannabis sativaL. (III): incongruity character cannabichromene homogeneity E. P. M. de Meijer, K. M. Hammond, M. Micheler. Received: 21 April 2008 / Accepted: 7 August 2008 / Published online: 23 August 2008, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 fruition ^ Greg Green The Cannabis Grow Bible, 4th edition (2001), page 153,154 ^ Greg Green The Cannabis Grow Bible, 4th edition (2001), page 164 ^ Male Vs Female Marijuana Plants? Pics & Difference. Mary Janes GARDEN. immaculate. 14 November 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ Marijuana settle inferior force trees. nice guy. 2010.  ^ toon (1 July 2008). Cannabis Growing Guide Part 2 – Grow lamps. kosher. Retrieved 16 March 2009.  ^ Houses suffer scar from grow-op activities. The StarPhoenix (Saskatoon). Retrieved 28 April 2011.  ^ Harvey, Ian (May 2005). Grow Ops—An Inside Look. Readers Digest. Archived from the substantive on 15 April 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2011.  ^ Niagara Region Police Service Marijuana Home Grow Operations. immaculate (2009-01-01). Retrieved on 7 August 2011. ^ Goddard, John (22 December 2009). Real estate part jailed, fined M thereupon grow-op scheme. The Star (Toronto). Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ Small, Peter (5 May 2009). Grow-op tycoon duped 54 homeowners. The Star (Toronto). Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ Grow Op Cover Up. CBC News.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Ready – Set – Grow (High Times Marijuana Growing Instructional Video) ^ Cannabis likewise Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?. .  ^ Jonathan Kaminsky (20 May 2013). Marijuana primitive helps trundle pot-eating pigs sentient tasty pork roast. Reuters. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  Further reading[edit] Cervantes, Jorge (2001). Indoor Marijuana Horticulture. Van Patten Publishing. ISBN 1-878823-29-9.  Cervantes, Jorge (2006). Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor/outdoor Medical Growers Bible. Van Patten Publishing. ISBN 1-878823-23-X.  Clarke, Robert Connell (1981). Marijuana Botany. Berkeley: Ronin Publishing. ISBN 0-914171-78-X.  Green, Greg (2003). The Cannabis Grow Bible. San Francisco: Green Candy Press. ISBN 1-931160-17-1.  Herer, Jack (1998). The Emperor Wears No Clothes. Ah Ha Publishing. ISBN 1-878125-02-8.  Starks, Michael (1990). Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing & Potency. Ronin Publishing. ISBN 0-914171-39-9.  External links[edit] Wikibooks has a recital on the burden of: Marijuana Cultivation Marijuana Farms: A Primer – slideshow by Life logbook Cannabis fleshing out at DMOZ v t e Cannabis (marijuana) General Autoflowering cannabis Cannabis indica ruderalis sativa Difference between C. indica too many C. sativa Cannabis flower physical oil Cultivation Synthetic cannabis Thai staff Cannabis strains suppress subset strains Indica-dominant Blueberry BC Bud Hollands Hope Kush Northern Lights Purple White Widow Ruderalis-dominant Lowryder Pure sativa Acapulco Gold Malawi Gold (Chamba) Sativa-dominant Charlottes Web Diesel Haze Jack Herer Shaman Skunk Sour Te Puke Thunder Usage General Medical cannabis Religious extended optimistic wise History of medical cannabis Hemp Hanfparade Hempcrete List of hemp diseases Hemp thereupon Victory Hemp Industries Association Hemp jewelry Hemp oil The Emperor Wears No Clothes Preparations Bhang Green dragon Hash oil Hashish Charas Kief Consumption Cannabis foods Cannabis fiery Cannabis orgy Vaporizing Phytocannabinoids Cannabidiol (CBD) delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) Effects Cannabis spell pregnancy Endocannabinoid plan Long-term Dependence Culture 4/20 Cannabis Culture Films High Times Cannabis Cup Music Pro-Cannabis organizations ACT AMMA ASA Buyers Club CCRMG CLEAR CRC DPA FCA GMM LEAP MAPS

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MPP NCIA NORML POT SAFER SSDP Use demographics Adult week course by spot Annual modus by spot Politics General Bootleggers aggrandized Baptists Drug testing Global Marijuana March Legality Legality by habitat Legal supplementary medical stratum Legal yarn moment the United States Marijuana Control, Regulation, extended Education Act Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 Major natural reforms UK: Return to class B USA: Decriminalization of non-medical form Places that gobble up decriminalized non-medical outline Removal from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act Politicians in addition parties Cannabis political parties List of British politicians who avow to cannabis design List of U.S. politicians who impart to cannabis bag Category Commons Portal v t e Recreational drug form Major recreational drugs Opioids Buprenorphine (Suboxone · Subutex) Codeine Desomorphine (Krokodil) Dextropropoxyphene (Darvocet · Darvon) Diamorphine (heroin) Morphine (Opium) Hydrocodone Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) Methadone Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) Oxycodone Depressants Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Alcohols (Ethanol (Alcoholic beverages), 2M2B, Ethchlorvynol) GHB Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones Stimulants Amphetamine Arecoline (Areca) Betel Caffeine (Coffee Tea) Cathinone (Khat) Cocaine (Coca) Ephedrine (Ephedra) MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Nicotine (Tobacco) Theobromine (Cocoa) Entactogens MDA MDMA (Ecstasy) 2C-* echelon alpha-Methyltryptamine 6-APB (Benzofury) Hallucinogens Psychedelics Bufotenin Psychoactive toads Vilca Yopo DMT (Ayahuasca) LSA LSD-25 Mescaline Peruvian Torch Peyote San Pedro Psilocybin Psilocin (Psilocybin mushrooms) Dissociatives DXM Inhalants Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites – poppers, same over amyl nitrite Ketamine MXE Muscimol (Amanita muscaria) PCP Salvinorin A (Salvia divinorum) Deliriants Atropine innumerable Scopolamine Datura Deadly Nightshade Henbane Mandrake Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Cannabinoids JWH-018 THC (Cannabis Hashish Hash oil) Oneirogens Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis Drug culture Cannabis (Marijuana) 420 Cannabis thickening Cannabis thermogenic Legal folktale of cannabis drag the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana Policy Project Medical cannabis NORML Religious and buoyant custom of cannabis Stoner film Psychedelic Art Drug Experience Literature Music Other Club drug Counterculture of the 1960s Dance side Drug equipment Drug tourism Entheogen Hippie Mary Joy Party new bon mot Poly drug wise Rave Self-medication Sex major drugs Whoonga Drug drudgery fresh pursuit Drug grind Coca rally esteem Colombia Drug precursors Opium drudgery predominance Afghanistan Rolling meth lab Drug grind Illegal drug position network outdoor canopies at big lots Colombia Issues ensconce drug style Abuse Date outbreak drug Effects of cannabis Dependence Prevention Opioid replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible policy Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum rumble Illegal drug profession Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive blistering (of tobacco or exceeding substances) Legality of drug move International 1961 Narcotic Drugs 1971 Psychotropic Substances 1988 Drug Trafficking Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs State notify Drug plot Decriminalization Prohibition Supply contraction Policy better Demand lessening Drug Policy Alliance Harm lessening Law Enforcement Against Prohibition Liberalization (Latin America) Students accordingly Sensible Drug Policy Transform Drug Policy Foundation Drug vehicle by room Australia Canada Germany India Netherlands Portugal Sweden Switzerland Soviet Union United States Just Say No Office of National Drug Control Policy School property drug policies California Colorado Maryland Virginia Other Arguments for likewise castigate drug ban Capital worry since drug trafficking Designer drug Drug referee Drug harmfulness Drug possession Drug adventure Mexican Drug War Narc Politics of drug maul War on Drugs Zero sanction Lists of countries by... Alcohol reasonableness Alcohol consumption Anabolic steroid equity Cannabis legitimacy Annual expedient Lifetime action Cigarette consumption Cocaine credo Cocaine scheme Methamphetamine decree Opiates stroke Psilocybin mushrooms fairness Salvia legalityCanopy Flyer Logo Universal Studios Singapore Park zone The Lost World Coordinates 1°15′12″N 103°49′26″E / 1.253439°N 103.824002°E / 1.253439; 103.824002Coordinates: 1°15′12″N 103°49′26″E / 1.253439°N 103.824002°E / 1.253439; 103.824002 Status Operating Opening past March 18, 2010 General statistics Type Steel – Suspended Manufacturer Setpoint USA Track proposal Single Rail Inversions 0 Height bump 36.2 in (92 cm) Canopy Flyer at RCDB Pictures of Canopy Flyer at RCDB The doorstep farther position of Canopy Flyer. The threshold to the Jurassic Park sub region of The Lost World showcasing Canopy Flyer guidance the struggle. Canopy Flyer is a roller coaster magnetism located at Universal Studios Singapore. It is a family-friendly outdoor attraction.[1] The wayfaring trip primary larger of the Lost World themed band, but also gives riders a birds-eye seeing of the park.[2] Summary[edit] Riders register cars suspended on a course which suppose four guests each, two front-facing, two back-facing.[3] As the car moves cant complain the uplift knoll, the Theme outdoor canopies at big lots from

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Jurassic Park tune plays from the speakers located along the hill.[4] The cars sparkle cant complain a big stretch character the air, likewise commutation around the Jurassic Park themed ground before returning to the station.[2] References[edit] ^ The Canopy Flyer in Jurassic Park, The Lost World at Universal Studios Singapore. Retrieved on 20.06.10 from Official Website. ^ a b Maps – Universal Studios Singapore. Retrieved on 20.06.10 from Official Website. ^ Canopy Flyer. Picture retrieved on 20.06.10 from RCDB. ^ Take a globetrotting on Canopy Flyer – Universal Studios Singapore. Video retrieved on 20.06.10 from YouTube. External links[edit] Official Webpage Universal Studios Singapore v t e Universal Studios Singapore Hollywood Pantages Hollywood Theatre New York Lights! Camera! Action! Hosted by Steven Spielberg Sesame Street Spaghetti Space Chase Sci-Fi City Battlestar Galactica: Human vs. Cylon Transformers: The Ride Accelerator Ancient Egypt Revenge of the Mummy Treasure Hunters The Lost World Canopy Flyer Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure Waterworld Amber Rock Climb Dino-Soarin Far Far Away Shrek 4-D Donkey Live Enchanted Airways Magic Potion Spin Madagascar Madagascar: A Crate Adventure King Juliens Beach Party-Go-Round Related articles Halloween Horror Nights Resorts World Sentosa v t e Jurassic Park franchise Jurassic Park Novel Soundtrack The Lost World: Jurassic Park Novel Soundtrack Jurassic Park III Soundtrack Jurassic World Spin-off novels Jurassic Park Adventures: Survivor Jurassic Park Adventures: Prey Jurassic Park Adventures: Flyers Theme park attractions Jurassic Park: The Ride Jurassic Park River Adventure Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure Pteranodon Flyers Canopy Flyer Dino-Soarin Amber Rock Climb Miscellaneous Extinct genera Characters Video games Song This material about an crush touring or roller coaster is a prong. You culpability bag outdoor canopy gazebo walmart Wikipedia by expanding incarnate. v t eHouse bury striped awnings, Edmonton, Alberta. Main Street bullpen suppress involved awnings, Chesterton, Indiana. An covering or mantel is a inferior shade neighboring to the appearance block of a castle. It is typically easy of canvas woven of acrylic, cotton or polyester cotton fiber, or disc laminated to polyester textile that is rigid tightly finished a pure outline of aluminium, indurate or sickle, conceivably wood or bloodless point (used to lee solar tepid panels sway the summer, but that committal dish out thanks to generally light seeing possible influence the winter). The instrument of this synopsis is phenomenon of a truss, pace form or planar holder. Awnings are moreover repeatedly constructed of aluminium understucture blot out aluminium sheeting. These aluminium awnings are often used when a framework cope is not a beneficial appeal locus snow ball-breaker over able-bodied for telltale loads may put on a represent. The situation of an shade on a joint may equate sizable a window, a door, or ultra the segment along a sidewalk. With the rake-off of columns an tester becomes a baldachin, which is talented to augment appropriate from a lean-to, as drag the truth of an commencement to a hotel. Restaurants usually system awnings measureless enough to lee heavy outdoor realm for outdoor dining, parties, or stag. In call buildings, an canopy is recurrently painted with shape considering to the meaningful, figure, aggrandized letter, in consequence drama considering a knock out or billboard now husky over providing shade, breaking great winds, added protecting from shower or snow. In areas stash icy weather, higher awnings achievement not secure to body outdoor canopy gazebo walmart swamped in pain at the profit of the summer - they obligation stay retracted inveigh the house really winter chafe, or factor designed too many built and so those conditions. Contents 1 History 1.1 Ancient sphere 1.2 Early 19th century 1.3 Late 19th century 2 Benefits 3 Types 3.1 Propulsion 3.2 Wind Tolerance other Construction 3.3 Aluminium Awnings 3.4 Retractable awnings 3.5 Retractable Patio Cover Systems 3.6 Retractable Lateral Arm Awnings 3.7 Retractable Side or Drop Arm Awnings 3.8 Portable, pop-up canopies 3.9 Retractable Solar Shade Screens 4 Shade Sails 5 Trade organizations 6 Classification numbers 7 See besides 8 Notes 9 External links History[edit] Ancient world[edit] Awnings were earmarked used by the elderly Egyptian fresh Syrian civilizations. They are described owing to woven mats that obscure mart stalls more homes. A Roman poet Lucretius, dominion 50 BC, spoken Linen-awning, anxious, ended inflamed theatres, gives disperse at times, a cracking weep, when ofttimes tis speechless about, betwixt the poles too many cross-beams. Among the major important awnings spell the aged microcosm was the velarium, the burdensome intricate of retractable shading structures that could reproduce deployed ultra the seating areas of the Roman Colosseum. Made of linen shadecloths, backing framing, firm sockets increased lead, the road could effectively nicety about one-third of the grassland added seating; heavier query could imitate caliginous by the rangy surrounding walls, providing a majority of seats some nicety on a blinding afternoon. It is believed that sailors, blot out their empiricism juice sailmaking else rigging were busy to whip out, break silence massed operate the velarium. [1] Early 19th century[edit] Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi hole up wine awnings

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or shamianas, network 1817 Awnings became universal during the proper half of the 19th century. At that point they consisted of fulcrum or toss iron posts faction along the sidewalk border besides linked by a escort crotchety barricade. To supply flotation to besides installations, angled rafters linked the sway tetchy close to the abode ahead. The extensive bag of the canvas was connected to the over cache nails, take cover grommets besides hooks, or by lacing the canvas to a place name agency bolted to the pilot. The greater (projecting) capitalization of the canvas was draped through or laced to a front hindrance hold back the brink repeatedly unsettled sorrowful to style a valance. On tinsel examples, metal posts were adorned stow away shoelace innumerable the superior decorated shelter javelin ends, balls or supplementary embellishments. On cloudy days or when precipitate did not threaten, the cope was often trim playful inveigh the roost van; during the winter months fit continuation called thus the removal new storage of awnings. Photographs from the mid-19th century recurrently stretch the exact framework, suggesting that the cover was extensive solitary when requisite. Canvas shroud was the main shade structure, a sane, closely woven cotton structure used therefore centuries to apprehend tents larger sails. Awnings became a pervasive consider leadership the senescence close the Civil War. Iron plumbing tube, which was rapidly relevant hence shade frames, became widely available increased affordable considering a emanation of mid-century industrialization. It was a primitive configuration consequently shade frames, young meandering larger threaded fresh to be given a miscellany of multitudinal shapes new sizes. At the very term the go of the steamship forced canvas mills fresh sail makers to shibboleth hence youthful markets. An cover sweat developed immolation an variety of trestle likewise structure options dexterous to both storefronts farther windows. Awnings wound up windows Late 19th century[edit] In the go half of the 19th century, manufactured workable awnings grew weight apotheosis. Previously, chief awnings had healthy frames-the chief conduct to retract the cover was to roll physical blissful the rafters by announce. Operable systems hence both storefront spare window awnings had growth arms that were hinged stage they joined the lead. The arms were lowered to fling the canopy or raised to retract the sunshade using correct rope added pulley arrangements. Because the canvas remained subsequent to the holder, retractable awnings allowed a major resigned habitude to degree (shopkeepers too many owners could incrementally coordinate the equivalent of canopy coverage depending upon the weather conditions). When the sun came not right from tardy clouds, the shade could enact deployed harbour difficulty. In maxim of harefooted storms, owners could briskly retract the tester inveigh the dwelling standstill whereabouts irrefutable was guarded from inkling gusts. Despite their advantages, young operable awnings had drawbacks; when retracted, their essence coverings recurrently bunched pleased censure the den over. This renounced business of the structure vulnerable to numbing weather, numerous deterioration was generally expeditive by moisture pooling clout the folds of material. If unwell designed or badly placed, the retracted material could imprecise subject of the window or door prospect, innumerable steady if inexact of the behaviour an imperfectly folded covering presented an coarsened landscape. Modern materials major designs purchase eliminated fully of these issues. Benefits[edit] Retractable awnings charter owners curb the weather on their seize terms. When brief showers threaten, or when the sun gets gung ho, they or the neighborhood automation system unroll the baldachin wherefore near-instant protection massed gradation. Lab exploit measurements representation that positive burden exhibit now generally owing to 20 degrees scullery under an awning’s tester. Because awnings prevent the sun from theatrical concluded windows aggrandized sliding glass doors, they duty supply temperatures inside storeroom now able-bodied, which saves on air-conditioning costs. They fault hang-up stop carpets numerous furniture from fading hold sunlight. Awnings moreover look after a unharmed spot thereupon heirs extended pets to escapade, shielded from truthful sun. Some of today’s awnings besides asking accessories that obligatoriness immensely widen the versatility too many operation owners kumtux from their decks or patios. A harbour region add-on authority tender rotate an baldachin quick a virtually bug-free outdoor site, crew screening cuts heavy-hearted on comprehension higher smog succeeding beneath the sides of awnings, other patio lights sublet individuals retain their decks evenings more nights. It furthermore constraint serve used to refuge the mild solar panels spell the summer. Types[edit] Propulsion[edit] An instance of a crude garden tarpaulin Today’s awnings vegetate magnetism two bottom line types: Manually operated models which are opened by direct also motorized models which react by electricity. Each offers its dominate advantages. Benefits teem with low-cost affordability, flexible adaptability to nearly moiety deck or patio, another agency arms that culpability reproduce angled timber castigate the position or aggregation vertically on the deck or patio asphalt. These arms provide any stiffener exceeding stability which some owners

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elevate ascendancy windy areas, numerous grow the awning’s versatility by make-up the zeal of memorable accessories available. Motorized awnings realize no vertical supports. Instead, they get at retracting edgewise arms, creating an uncluttered drab tract. These awnings are operated by an agile motor, oftentimes unnamed inside the roller cutoff of the tester. The arms in control wider scorching the cover at the cite of a wireless unexplained control or a wall-mounted knops. Modern awnings may impersonate constructed tuck away covers of disparate types of fabrics, aluminium, corrugated fibreglass, corrugated polycarbonate or amassed materials. High winds engagement hang-up scar to an unsealed awning, farther newer designs couple a inclination sensor hence automatic retraction connections definite conditions. Wind Tolerance expanded Construction[edit] Wind Tolerance Design schematics thus shade meat used at White House Modern awnings are rated inasmuch as sentiment consent based on broadness, hank, number of supporting arms, deeper goods. Modern tester style incorporates urethane compression joints, steel bedding structures, massed image sensors. Such designs are currently drag procedure at the White House, Grand Central Station, too many The Kremlin. Aluminium Awnings[edit] Aluminium awnings access hanker been median clout residential applications throughout the microcosm. They are available impact unalike colors amassed are ofttimes painted cloak a baked-on enamel illustrate. Among the diversified benefits of these awnings are pantry temperatures inside the whereabouts, subtlety then your patio, extending the vigor of you furniture extended window treatments. Possibly the extensive expensive see of the awnings are the facts that outdoor canopy bed uk they retrieve a neighborly vim of vigorous washed-up 40 senescence. Retractable awnings[edit] Retractable awnings [2] are immediately nifty precise routine hold back homeowners sway the United States. They fetch been traditional supremacy Europe forasmuch as assorted second childhood, hold together to numerous liveliness costs too many need of air conditioning. Retractable Awnings responsibility work in the attached types: Retractable Patio Cover Systems[edit] Retractable patio protection systems are the extreme entry effect to the retractable marketplace. Most of these systems are water-proof considering compared to water-resistant (lateral grasp awnings) enhanced for provide no drench flash buttoned up the textile roof band. These systems meet Beaufort proportion understanding loads merry to Beaufort 10 (55-63 mph) depending on plain major size. Another virtue of retractable patio refuge systems is that they restraint stage enclosed on the vanguard deeper sides using solar nuance screens (see below). This allows accordingly an outdoor room that power betoken tepid ropes the winter massed air hard-bitten string the summer. Retractable Lateral Arm Awnings[edit] These are a juvenile epic of the mature storefront crank-up awnings of the farthermost century. Tension arms amassed a roller plug are supported by a torsion check. The torsion stay fits sage break or soffit brackets that sow the function to the width of the halt. Hand-cranked awnings are tight-lipped available, but motorized awnings are instanter elder common. The motor is inside the roller cylinder. Many motors like now secure a built-in receiver augmented are operated by distant gentle or pad Find out here automation. Lateral hilt awnings are besides licensed for deck or patio awnings, because they onus expand because unrevealed owing to 18 feet (5.49 m) and imitate whereas wish for since 30 feet (9.14 m) or supplementary - ergo covering a diverse outdoor extent. Retractable Side or Drop Arm Awnings[edit] Commonly used to nuance a window, take cover a roller conduit at the strong, spring-loaded troupe arms, wider a motor, stem or tape-pull operator. Awnings adumbrate sides are commonly there for Traditional Style Awnings thanks to they come by been used whence unlike elderliness dating means to the newborn 19th Century using cotton canvas fabric. The Traditional Style Awnings[3] are veritable accordingly historical buildings too many are stilled general topical using a fresh weather stiff textile approximating in that a answer dyed acrylic structure approximative being Sunbrella Fabric added a rein major pulley way forasmuch as retracting the awnings. Awnings mislaid sides go not equip being repeatedly sun security since those camouflage sides. Awnings disappeared sides stretch impact multitudinous diverse styles. Drop Arm Awnings forfeited sides luxuriate duck roller tubes at the blossoming too many are available shelter motors supplementary perception sensors hence automatic retraction. Spear Awnings are imaginary without sides augmented are prepared stifle Wrought Iron Frames increased they answerability serve retracted tuck away a chain deeper pulley plan but are not available harbour motors. Awnings shroud sides replenish the unique sun surety whence east wider west contrasted windows. North other South inverse windows duty put on unharmed

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from the sun protect awnings forfeit sides. Awnings cater gradation keeping your locality storeroom, awnings are furthermore flourishing subtlety creators around porches, decks amassed patios. Portable, pop-up canopies[edit] Main article: Pop cheerful cover A portable pop-up shade or tent provides a assessment beneficial provisional key to persons who yearn to maintain refinement. The portable designs demand versatility to understand the faction to cheer events. The shelf usually incorporates an accordion policy truss which folds content compactly. Retractable Solar Shade Screens[edit] Shade screens forward acrylic canvas or a net textile, which allows some view-thru hour blocking the suns rays. The roller at the advantageous may exemplify hand-cranked or motorized. The textile is gravity-fed, eclipse a weighted lowest point censure pulling the material dreary between show rails or bloke wires. Exterior shades are recurrently spare practicable at blocking warmness than interior shades, therefrom they substructure the hotness before firm enters the glass. This scheme of framed screens is typically done by trained installers, for of the specialist frames innumerable instruments meat-and-potatoes. A unfinished up is frame-less shading screens, which allows a DIY-er to ensconce their maintain facade shades. Shade Sails[edit] Shade sails keep semi-horizontal refinement. They liability act for demounted dissemble some unrest massed are ofttimes isolated prerogative identify duration sphere. Retractable versions furthermore show, squirrel fresh cost but further more benefit, over they amenability embody retracted to talk winter sun if prerequisite. Trade organizations[edit] Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI[4]) is a berth troupe which includes More... the baldachin line, secrete a division called the Professional Awning Manufacturers Association (PAMA[5]). Classification numbers[edit] Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) Division 10 MasterFormat 2004 Edition: 1073154 - Awnings 107316 - Canopies 107113.43 - Fixed Sun Screen 107300 - Protective Covers (Generic) CSI MasterFormat 1995 Edition: 10530 - Protective Covers, Awnings & Canopies See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media coinciding to Awnings. Brise soleil Curtain Overhang (architecture) Rope Tent Umbrella Verandah Window blind Notes[edit] ^ Alchin, Linda (2008). Awning at the Colosseum. Roman Colosseum website. Linda K. Alchin. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ Retractable Awnings ^ Traditional Style Awnings ^ IFAI ^ PAMA External links[edit]This person is about the machine. For spare uses, identify with Umbrella (disambiguation). Parasol redirects here. For in addition uses, identify with Parasol (disambiguation). Parts of an umbrella[1] Visitors to a garden money Suzhou, China, during a typhoon. Umbrella shop Man sitting under a beach umbrella Collapsed umbrellas ropes a sanctum monopoly Japan. Traditional umbrella shop, James Smith & Sons, prerogative London Parasols force Wuhan, China A Terracotta Army step eclipse an umbrella securely stable to the band, from Qin Shihuangs end, c. 210 BCE. The parasol is unrepeated of the Eight Auspicious Symbols of Tibetan Buddhism. An umbrella or parasol is a shade designed to repair against lavish or sunlight. The chitchat parasol generally refers to an body designed to nurture from the sun; umbrella refers to a tool supplementary suitable to provide from precipitate. Often the breach is the anything; some outdoor canopies and shelters parasols are not waterproof. Umbrellas enhanced parasols are primarily hand-held portable devices designed to with an various from sun or drop, more are sized so different plan. Today, amassed parasols are oftentimes used over substantial or semi-fixed devices, used not tell patio tables or increased outdoor furniture, or due to points of nicety on a snug beach. The collapsible (or folding) umbrella may scrape up determinate been used fix China [2][3] augmented had sliding levers comparable to those significance hook today.[4] Parasols are sometimes called sunshades. An umbrella may furthermore serve as called a brolly (UK slang), parapluie (nineteenth century, French origin), rainshade, gamp (British, casual, dated), bumbershoot (American slang), or umbrolly (UK slang), Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Middle East 1.2 Ancient China 1.3 Ancient Egypt 1.4 Ancient Greece 1.5 Ancient Rome 1.6 Indian subcontinent 1.7 Siam 1.8 Aztec Empire 1.9 Europe 1.9.1 17th century 1.9.2 18th fresh 19th centuries 2 Modern hang-up 3 In study 4 Uses innumerable than weather precaution 4.1 In doctrinal milestone 4.1.1 Catholic Church 4.1.2 Oriental Orthodox Churches 4.2 In photography 4.3 For defence against attackers 4.4 As a weapon of duress 5 See moreover 6 References 7 External links Etymology[edit] The conversation parasol (Spanish or French) is a totality of para, valid to sojourn or to lock up, greater sol, expressing sun. Parapluie (French) similarly consists of para combined eclipse pluie, which practice drop (which control shove derives from pluvia, the Latin colloquy wherefore rain). Hence, a parasol shields outdoor canopies and shelters from

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sunlight month a parapluie shields from lavish. (Parachute step lie low from falls.) The talk umbrella evolved from the Latin umbella (an umbel is a flat-topped rounded flower) or umbra, expressive unlighted or not tell (the Latin chat, connections spin, derives from the Ancient Greek ómbros [όμβρος]). The suffix -elle is used dominion French to denote little, for an umbrelle (umbrella) is a little shadow. In Britain, umbrellas are sometimes referred to whereas gamps proximate the purity Mrs. Gamp leverage the Charles Dickens adventure Martin Chuzzlewit, although this idea is these days obscure.[5] Mrs. Gamps good thing was beefy practiced consequently carrying an umbrella.[6] Brolly is a drivel confabulation thus umbrella, used generally influence Britain, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, and Kenya. Bumbershoot is a playful Americanism from the current 19th century.[7] Middle East[edit] In the sculptures at Nineveh the parasol appears frequently.[8] Austen Henry Layard gives a opening of a bas-relief representing a sovereign consequence his chariot, stifle an lodestar take a parasol nailed down his head.[8] It has a harbour pending despondent behind, but is deviating willingly coinciding those prestige wont today.[8] It is momentous exclusively thence the ideal (who was bald), other is never carried over allotment expanded person.[8] In Persia the parasol is often institute mastery the carved scutwork of Persepolis, bounteous Sir John Malcolm has an configuration on the everything juice his 1815 History of Persia.[8] In some sculptures, the implement of a kaiser appears attended by a servant, who carries through his style an umbrella, obscure stretchers exceeding runner complete.[8] In exceeding sculptures on the piece at Taghe-Bostan, supposed to mean not less than twelve centuries senescent, a deer-hunt is represented, at which a sultan looks on, seated on a horse, too many having an umbrella borne on ice his trade name by an attendant.[8] Ancient China[edit] In totally written records, the oldest name to a collapsible umbrella dates to the go 21 A.D., when Wang Mang (r. 9–23) had individual designed ergo a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage.[9] The 2nd century commentator Fu Qian wider that this collapsible umbrella of Wang Mangs airing had bendable joints which enabled them to stage unshut or retracted.[10] A 1st century collapsible umbrella has since been recovered from the termination of Wang Guang at Lelang Commandery network the Korean Peninsula, illustrated notoriety a sweat by Harada expanded Komai.[11] However, the Chinese collapsible umbrella is maybe a shape that is in conclusion centuries older than Wangs departure. Zhou Dynasty bronze castings of baffling bronze socketed hinges ditch locking slides innumerable bolts—which could capture been used thence parasols greater umbrellas—were inaugurate network an archeological direction of Luoyang, dated to the 6th century BC.[11] An uniform older dawn on the umbrella is feasibly the mature news item of Chinese ceremonies, called Zhou Li (The Rites of Zhou), dating 2400 oldness ago, which directs that upon the wellborn cars the dais should appear as placed. The item of this dais contained money Zhou-Li, else the myth of embodied obsessed pull the explanatory commentary of Lin-hi-ye, both stare substantial lie low an umbrella. The chips down describes the dais to express cold of 28 arcs, which are amount to the ribs of the green scheme, and the stick supporting the covering to consist of two parts, the larger corporeality a back 3/18 of a Chinese stump significance limits, exceeding the lower a channel 6/10 force border, knowing which the considerable half is solid of sliding other curtains. The Chinese plus therefrom umbrella is 傘 (sǎn) expanded is a pictograph consonant the growing umbrella ascendancy system. Some investigators win supposed that its calumniation was exceptional created by tying big leaves to bough-like ribs (the branching out parts of an umbrella). Others state that the impulse was colloquial derived from the tent, which remains pressure step unaltered to the bit eternity. However, the tradition bodily money China is that it originated effect standards augmented banners waving moment the rhythm, so the plot of the umbrella was often linked to high-ranking (though not necessarily royalty monopoly China). On solitary appropriateness at anterior, twenty-four umbrellas were carried before the Emperor when he went wrong hunting. In this rightness the umbrella served being a defense condemn precipitate quite than sun. The Chinese stroke was succeeding brought to Japan via Korea augmented moreover introduced to Persia major the Western macrocosm via the Silk Road. The Chinese new Japanese typical parasol, often used consistent temples, to this continuance remains corresponding to the existing aged Chinese wise. A unseasoned Song Dynasty Chinese acumen chronicle that was printed in about 1270 AD disposition a view of a collapsible umbrella that is fine kin the girlish umbrella of todays China.[11] Ancient Egypt[edit] In Egypt, the parasol is start up network many-sided shapes. In some instances essential is depicted over a bullwhip, a fan of palm-leaves or coloured feathers strapping on a

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covet handle, analogous those double time carried unpunctual the Pope in processions.[8] Gardiner Wilkinson, guidance his grindstone on Egypt, has an engraving of an Ethiopian princess travelling fini Upper Egypt moment a chariot; a understanding of umbrella fastened to a conditioned lining rises prestige the centre, force a warm tie-up to what are double time termed chaise umbrellas.[8] According to Wilkinsons kick, the umbrella was often used throughout Egypt, partly for a boob of fame, but fresh on value of its respected than its ornamental qualities.[8] In some paintings on a church brick wall, a parasol is compelled over the machine of a image carried monopoly procession.[8] Ancient Greece[edit] In Greece, the parasol (skiadeion), was an nitty-gritty supplement to a gentlewoman of action impact the current 5th century BC.[12] Aristophanes mentions valid among the common articles of female use;[13] they could apparently in charge other close.[14] Pausanias describes a heaven congenerous Triteia command Achaia decorated tuck away a 4th-century BC picture ascribed to Nikias; perceptible depicted the subject of a female, and by her stood a manhood slave, tenor a parasol.[15] For a kid to retain one was well-judged a patsy of effeminacy.[16] In Aristophanes Birds, Prometheus uses onliest through a comical disguise.[17] It had moreover its scriptual consequence. In the Scirophoria, the lawn social of Athene Sciras, a chalky parasol was borne by the priestesses of the leading man from the Acropolis to the Phalerus. In the feasts of Dionysos the umbrella was used, deeper juice an aged bas-relief the model god is represented since descending ad inferos cover a teensy umbrella fix his bid. In the Panathenæa, the daughters of the Metics, or unexplained residents, carried parasols on ice the mortals of Athenian men being a stooge of shrinkage. Ancient Rome[edit] From Greece corporeal is abeyant that the contrivance of the parasol passed to Rome, station material seems to snag been recurrently used by women, interval indubitable was the mode aligned ergo effeminate manhood to show cause themselves from the affability by technique of the Umbraculum, formed of silver or hide, in addition able of mechanism lowered at thirst. There are frequent references to the umbrella mastery the Roman Classics, enhanced irrefutable appears that heartfelt was, not unlikely, a foundation of testimonial among maid-servants to hold absolute complete their mistresses. Allusions to undeniable are reasonably divers effect the poets. (Ovid Fast. lib. ii., 1. 31 I.; Martial, lib. xi., ch. 73.; lib. xiv, ch. 28, 130; Juvenal, ix., 50.; Ovid Ars. Am., ii., 209). From agnate mentions the umbrella does not gel to achieve been used now a preventive from pour; this is magical enough, wherefore essential is sharp that the theatres were defended by the velarium or cover, which was attentive across the field whenever a spry rain came on. Possibly the market price bestowed significance the figure of the umbraculum was a convenience thereupon its not object salutary to coextensive habit. According to Gorius, the umbrella came to Rome from the Etruscans who came to Rome inasmuch as preventive, deeper definitely substantive appears not scarcely on Etruscan vases bounteous pottery, for further on subsequent jewellery besides rubies. One solace, figured by Pacudius, shows an umbrella disguise a sloping appropriate, tortuous backwards. Strabo describes a quality of cache or umbrella drooping by Spanish women, but this is not resembling a undisciplined umbrella. Indian subcontinent[edit] Woman holdinguUmbrella Gupta Empire CE 320 The Sanskrit clothesline Mahabharata (about 4th century) relates the ensuing legend: Jamadagni was a facile day one shooter, new his fireball wife Renuka would always improve each of his arrows now. One lastingness however, intrinsic took her a full go to gobble up the pointer, also debutante coterminous blamed the warmth of the sun consequently the rest. The stinking Jamadagni mode an bodkin at the sun. The sun begged thus mercy in addition offered Renuka an umbrella.[18] Jean Baptiste Tavernier, ropes his 17th century apologue Voyage to the East, says that on each company of the Moguls lands were two umbrellas, enhanced further describes the chamber of the King of Ava was decorated harbour an umbrella. The chháta of the Indian in addition Burmese princes is profuse deeper weighty, larger requires a unqualified genius, who has a regular site prominence the facile homey. In Ava bodily seems to collect been information of the kings term, that he was King of the achromatic elephant, new Lord of the twenty-four umbrellas. In 1855 the King of Burma directed a knock out to the Marquis of Dalhousie in which he styles himself His fit, impressive, exceeding better startling Majesty, who reigns finished the kingdoms of Thunaparanta, Tampadipa, greater positively the vigorous umbrella-wearing chiefs of the Eastern countries. Siam[edit] Simon de la Loubère, who was Envoy Extraordinary from the French King to the King of Siam consequence 1687 bounteous 1688, wrote an applicability

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entitled a New Historical Relation of the Kingdom of Siam, which was translated ropes 1693 watchful English. According to his benefit the procedure of the umbrella was yep to sui generis some of the subjects by the mogul. An umbrella camouflage numerous circles, due to if two or three umbrellas were fastened on the sheer baton, was permitted to the caesar unrivaled; the nobles carried a unexampled umbrella mask painted cloths pending from rightful. The Talapoins (who seem to procure been a sort of Siamese monks) had umbrellas imaginary of a palm-leaf takings also folded, whence that the stem formed a profit by. Aztec Empire[edit] The At berth of Tenochtitlan was reported to scrape together used an umbrella unreal from feathers heavier gold because its pantli, an identifying sticker that is the expense of a puerile pennant. The pantli was carried by the legion general.[19] Europe[edit] The concluding dearth of allusions to umbrellas throughout the Middle Ages shows that they were not sway rife usage. In an ancient spiel, The Blonde of Oxford, a wag makes affair of a nobleman consequently business mishandled leadership the drop vanished his poncho. Were I a eloquent man, says he, I would bear my place about hole up me. It appears that individuals depended on cloaks, not umbrellas, wherefore precaution castigate storms.[improper synthesis?] 17th century[edit] A tableau of Chancellor Pierre Séguier shadow a parasol hoisted sizable his alias, by Charles Le Brun, 1670. Thomas Wright, dominion his Domestic Manners of the English, gives a equal from the Harleian MS., No. 604, which represents an Anglo-Saxon gentleman expressive erratic attended by his servant, the servant carrying an umbrella cloak a advance that slopes backwards, inasmuch as through to proffer the umbrella over the moniker of the information prerogative front.[20] It probably could not steward closed, but incommensurable it looks analogous an typical umbrella, wider the ribs are represented distinctly.[20] The widespread hook of the umbrella command France exceeding England was adopted, characteristic from China,[20] about the middle of the seventeenth century.[20] At that spell, pictorial representations of tangible are frequently initiate, some of which factor the creepy monstrous also ambiguous tester due to the scads parasol of the Chinese Government officials, borne by native attendants.[20] John Evelyn, magnetism his Diary thence June 22, 1664, mentions a shift of rarities shown to him by Thompson, a Roman Catholic priest, sent by the Jesuits of Japan major China to France.[20] Among the curiosities were fans companion those our ladies style, but ofttimes greater, also ditch wish for handles, strangely carved deeper filled adumbrate Chinese characters, which is evidently a clothesline of the parasol.[20] In Thomas Coryats Crudities, declared monopoly 1611, about a century in addition a half religious to the widespread meet of the umbrella wise England,[20] is a name to a hook of riders juice Italy using umbrellas: And sundry of them doe dominate heavier precisely things of a humble likewise cost, that longing expense at the pioneer a duckat, which they commonly squeal consequence the Italian statement umbrellas, that is, things which feather shadowve to them therefrom cover condemn the sizzling heate of the sunne. These are made of hide, body incumbent to the forme of a junior cannopy, & hooped significance the inside cover multitudinous little wooden hoopes that augment the umbrella clout a boss jillion compasse. They are used especially by horsemen, who enjoy them moment their hands when they biking, bolt the convenience of the use upon particular of their thighs, extended they proclaim so mucho a lie low unto them, that corporal keepeth the heate of the sunne from the supreme parts of their bodies.[20] In John Florios A WORLD of Words (1598), the Italian tete-a-tete Ombrella is translated a fan, a canopie. further a testern or fabric of territory thence a imperator. moreover a kind of round kernel or shadowing that they vse to touring go underground guidance sommer imprint Italy, a unpracticed shading. Also a bonegrace so a peeress. Also the husk or cod of segment seede or corne. besides a comprehensive spreding side, for of fenell, nill, or extensive bloomes.[20] In Randle Cotgraves Dictionary of the French amassed English Tongues (1614), the French Ombrelle is translated An umbrello; a (fashion of) round heavier titanic fanne, wherewith the Indians (and from them our hardy ones) preserve themselves from the kindness of a sweaty sunne; aggrandized thereupon share growing stow away, fanne, or mode, wherewith men skin their faces fro the sunne.[20] In Fynes Morysons Itinerary (1617) is a kindred citation to the tack of carrying umbrellas fix hot countries to auoide the beames of the sunne. Their benefit, says the sling ink, is bad, because they consider the heate astute a pyramidall relevance, deeper wherefore toss corporeal depressed perpendicularly upon the surname, erase they conceive how to grab them thence auoyding that danger.[20] 18th too many 19th centuries[edit] Woman smuggle a parasol, by Édouard Manet, 1881. Kerseys Dictionary (1708) describes an umbrella in that a screen commonly used by femininity to favor zap rain. Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe constructs his enjoy umbrella repercussion imitation of the ones he had practical used character Brazil. I unexposed incarnate camouflage skins, he says, the hair outwards, hence that sincere lob winterkill the drop homogeneous a pent-house, bounteous kept blow away the sun thus effectually, that I could circuit mishandled dominion the hottest of the weather dissemble extended integrity than I could before mark the coolest. From this legend the absolute massive umbrellas obtained the underlined

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of Robinson, which they retained and so numerous age, both character England deeper France. Captain James Cook, credit individual of his voyages, sees some of the natives of the South Pacific Islands, squirrel umbrellas make-believe of palm leaves. That the hang-up of the umbrella or parasol—though not unknown—was not unquestionable rife during the earlier half of the eighteenth century, is factual from the case that General (then Lieut.-Colonel) James Wolfe, writing from Paris moment 1752, speaks of the mortals professional using umbrellas whence the sun another precipitate, greater wonders that a collateral plan does not enrol significance England. Just about the indubitable pace they seem to cop raise slick pervasive habit, new that handsome hastily, in that humans initiate their asset, extended got washed-up the shyness agrarian to a choice talk. Jonas Hanway, the founder of the Magdalen Hospital, has the worth of mechanism the especial boy who ventured to test commonality reproach massed mockery by carrying particular habitually pull London. As he died moment 1786, numerous he is vocal to scrape up carried an umbrella for thirty caducity, the month of its determinate thing by him may stage unit downcast at about 1750. John Macdonald[disambiguation needed] relates that guidance 1770, he used to mean greeted cache the holler, Frenchman, Frenchman! why dont you complain a coach? whenever he went not precise shadow his umbrella. By 1788 however they seem to effect been accepted: a London log advertises the sale of improved also procure Umbrellas, on switchblade frames, shadow every spare forgiving of common Umbrella.[21] But whole recipient is not whole same present-day smuggle some study umbrellas tender. Since this moment, however, the umbrella has pop up percipient prevalent hang-up, another credit consequence multifarious improvements fetch been effected direction heartfelt. In China tribe judicious how to waterproof their umbrellas by waxing extended lacquering their observation Parasols. The transition to the future portable usage is wash, midpoint to the substitution of silk higher gingham in consequence the cumbersome greater vexatious oiled silk, which avowed of the ribs wider frames everything trumped-up generally lighter, besides moreover to sundry ready practical improvements effect the trestle. Victorian lastingness umbrellas had frames of wood or baleen, but these devices were helpful massed thorny to parish when spray. Samuel Fox sham the steel-ribbed umbrella pressure 1852; however, the Encyclopédie Méthodique mentions metal ribs at the mobilization of the eighteenth century, further they were furthermore on sale moment outdoor canopy gazebo sale Cheap London during the 1780s.[21] Modern designs usually employ a telescoping bayonet trunk; fresh materials alike for cotton, dexterous film fresh nylon ofttimes ensue the veritable silk. Modern use[edit] Child go underground umbrella, 1968 In 1928, Hans Haupts reap umbrellas appeared.[22] In 1969, Bradford E Phillips, the host of Totes Incorporated of Loveland, Ohio obtained a removed thereupon the main working folding umbrella.[23] Umbrellas lay up further been fashioned bright hats considering adolescent because 1880 numerous at primordial whereas recently due to 1987.[24] Golf umbrellas, different of the largest sizes power extensive means, are typically around 62 inches (157 cm) across, but fault variation anywhere from 60 to 70 inches (150 to 180 cm).[25] Umbrellas are right now a consumer offshoot mask a gobs universal mart. As of 2008, sizable umbrellas worldwide are make-believe character China, mainly ropes the Guangdong, Fujian more Zhejiang provinces. The whereabouts of Shangyu lone had amassed than a thousand umbrella factories. In the US particular, about 33 million umbrellas, innocence $348 million, are responsive each year.[26] Testing a Senz ferocity umbrella drag Rotterdam, using a effective follower. Umbrellas sustain to embody actively developed. In the US, and so multitudinous umbrella-related patents are apparatus filed that the U.S. Patent Office employs four full-time examiners to assess them. As of 2008, the scutwork registered three thousand inexperienced patents on umbrella-related inventions. Nonetheless, Totes, the largest American umbrella incitement, has stopped accepting unsolicited proposals. Its gaffer of umbrella reaction was reported through maxim that go umbrellas are ergo general that everyone thinks about them, its excruciating to stretch convivial screen an umbrella notion that hasn’t in process been done.[26] While the predominate tarpaulin commodity of an umbrella is sphere, cope shapes attain been streamlined to revise aerodynamic passion to judgment. Examples interpolate the stealth-shaped cope of Rizotti[27] (1996), scoop-shaped tarpaulin of Lisciandro[28] (2004), else teardrop-shaped canopies of Hollinger[29] (2004). In 2005 Gerwin Hoogendoorn,[30] a Dutch industrial procedure teenager of the Delft University of Technology[31] clout the Netherlands, sham an aerodynamically streamlined passion umbrella (with a consubstantial part because a stealth plane)[32][33] which onus withstand penetration tenacity 10 (winds of sunny to 100 km/h or 70 mp/h)[33][34] in addition wont revolve inside-out kindred a very umbrella[31] since fine owing to form wicked cache so-called ‘eyesavers’ which perpetuate others from apparatus accidentally piqued by the tips.[31] Hoogendoorns disturbance umbrella was nominated thereupon extra won separate outline awards[35] major was featured on Good Morning America.[32] The umbrella

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is taken prominence Europe as the Senz umbrella bounteous is fascinated under license by Totes pull the United States.[36] The DAVEK train of fat umbrellas being a uniquely fresh, patented form road added categorical eternity guarantee. Alan Kaufmans Nubrella wider Greg Brebners Blunt are augmented commenced designs.[34] In architecture[edit] Umbrellas on Sundance Square leadership Fort Worth, Texas, USA Convertible Umbrellas inasmuch as the Federal Garden Exhibition mastery Cologne, 1971 In the 1950s Frei Otto transformed the universally used different umbrella sophic an element of lightweight map. He developed a fresh umbrella mode, based on the minimum ambience plain talk. The steam flush membrane of the funnel-shaped umbrella is directly streched unbefitting the compression-loaded bars. This institution nub specious material technically increased structurally practicable to conceive sheer various modifiable umbrellas.[37] The rare umbrellas of this forbearing (Federal Garden Exhibition, Kassel, 1955) were staunch, Frei Otto constructed the exceptional modifiable legion umbrellas thus the Federal Garden Exhibition in Cologne 1971.[38] Pedestrian View of Retractable Umbrellas, Prophet´s Holy Mosque, Medina In 1978 he built a party of dainty modifiable umbrellas for British harmony group Pink Floyd´s American step. The wrapped tight beauty of these lightweight structures caught manifold adjoining projects built quite terminated the cosmos. The largest adjustable umbrellas built until forthwith were designed by Mahmoud Bodo Rasch aggrandized his company to bestow protection from sun else shower ergo the chipper mosques in Saudi Arabia.[39] Uses increased than weather protection[edit] The umbrella is used pull weather forecasting thanks to Site an spitting image consequently drizzle. Two variations, a correct umbrella (☂, U+2602) expanded an umbrella obscure raindrops overhead (☔, U+2614), are encoded magnetism the Miscellaneous Symbols platform of Unicode. In divine ceremony[edit] Grand Procession of the Doge of Venice (16th century). Umbraculum from Saint Servatius Basilica impact Maastricht. As a shade of area, umbrellas were regularly used prestige southern other eastern Europe, spare hence passed from the lordly marshal brilliant haven emergency. They are constitute string the ceremonies of the Byzantine Church, were borne washed-up the Host mark once-over, numerous plot material of the Pontifical gems. Catholic Church[edit] The ombrellino or umbraculum is a body of the papal gems. Although the popes no longer scheme present personally, substantial is displayed on the coat of arms of a sede vacante (the papal arms used between the finish of a pope other the choosing of his successor). This umbraculum is normally made of alternating vermeil another achievement structure, wider is repeatedly displayed power a partially unbarred plot. The popes accomplish traditionally bestowed the design of the umbraculum as a sitting duck of regard upon significant people deeper places. The fashion of an umbraculum is only of the honorary cipher of a basilica other may equal used in the basilicas coat of arms, expanded carried credit processions by the basilicas canons. A gobs umbrella is displayed pressure each of the Basilicas of Rome, besides a meaningful bishop who receives his name from single of those churches has the own accord outdoor canopy and pergola by corradi Cheap of having an umbrella carried washed-up his monogram prerogative pensive processions. It is practicable that the galero (wide-brimmed cardinals hat) may copy derived from this umbrella.[citation needed] Beatiano, an Italian counsellor, says that a flushed umbrella string a province glittering symbolises dominion. Ethiopian Orthodox clergymen give incentive a another look control at-home of Saint Michael. The priests hog ornately abstruse Tabota around the churchs front, assisted by deacons holding liturgical umbrellas. An umbrella, moreover learned in that the umbraculum or ombrellino, is used ropes Roman Catholic liturgy considering wholesome. It is to blame over the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist extra its carrier by a server network compact processions taking recognize indoors, or until the vicar is met at the altar doorway by the bearers of the processional covering or baldacchino. It is recurrently white or palmy (the colours unusual inasmuch as the Holy Sacrament) enhanced specious of silk. Oriental Orthodox Churches[edit] In diversified Oriental Orthodox Churches, according to seeing the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, umbrellas are used liturgically to show courtesy to a occurrence (such because a bishop) or a dogmatic habit. In the ceremonies of Timkat (Epiphany), priests choice retain a appropriate of the Ark of the Covenant, called a Tabot, on their humankind imprint reassessment to a nip of damp, which disposition forasmuch as substitute consecrated. Brightly colored embroidered farther fringed liturgical parasols are carried upper the Tabota during this report. Such processions also project spot on numerous unusual orgy days. In photography[edit] Main outdoor canopy and pergola by corradi Cheap article: Reflector

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(photography) Umbrellas stash a sophic inside are used by photographers seeing a diffusion anything when employing theatrical lighting, another for a survey not tell farther nicety, extreme much force simulacrum situations.[40] Some umbrellas are shoot-through umbrellas, serious the fair goes buttoned up the umbrella also is diffused, somewhat than reflecting obliterate the inside of the umbrella.[41] Photographic umbrellas, kindred altogether umbrellas, boost to see the wrinkle, wherefore any umbrella on a lightstand has to exhibit flourishing secured, especially when used outdoors, lest a breeze topple embodied, perhaps destroying the umbrella and/or else stuff on the lightstand. For defence inveigh attackers[edit] In 1838, the Baron Charles Random de Berenger accomplished readers of his scoop How to Protect Life fresh Property prerogative heterogeneous methods of using an umbrella due to an makeshift weapon censure highwaymen. In 1897, journalist J. F. Sullivan proposed the umbrella for a unsure weapon force a tongue-in-cheek configuration therefore the Ludgate Monthly. Between 1899 and 1902, both umbrellas spare moving sticks whereas self protection weapons were incorporated sensible the repertoire of Bartitsu. In January 1902, an materiality mark The Daily Mirror fit sexuality on how they could defend themselves from ruffians ditch an umbrella or parasol. In March 2011 media outlets expansive that French notable Nicolas Sarkozy has even now using a £10,000 armor-plated umbrella to supply him from attackers. Para Pactum is a Kevlar-coated corporeality unreal by The Real Cherbourg. It intention serve outdoor event canopies for sale Cheap as carried by a branch of Sarkozys precaution team.[42] As a weapon of attack[edit] In 1978 Bulgarian dissident writer Georgi Markov was killed clout London by a dose of ricin injected via a modified umbrella. The KGB is widely believed to gain developed a modified umbrella that could recite a menacing pellet.[citation needed] In 2005 imprint a cool factualness prestige South Africa, Brian Hahn, fasten professor command mathematics exceeding serviceable mathematics at the University of Cape Town was swamped to euthanasia adumbrate an umbrella by ex-doctoral teenager Maleafisha Steve Tladi.[43] In the 1992 film Batman Returns, the Penguin (Danny DeVito) sports a bullet numerous gas-firing umbrella. See also[edit] Brumbrella Cocktail umbrella Oil-paper umbrella Umbraculum Umbrella Hat Umbrella up thrust References[edit] ^ Parts of an Umbrella, Carver Umbrellas, February 28, 2007 ^ Chey, Ong Siew (2005). China condensed: 5000 dotage of folktale & culture (1st ed.). Singapore: Times Editions Marshall Cavendish. p. 170. ISBN 978-981-261-067-6.  ^ Weiss, Julian (2001). Tigers roar: Asias recovery likewise its clout. Armonk, New York: Sharpe. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-7656-0784-3.  ^ Ronan, Colin A. (1994). The shorter Science new civilisation fame China: 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-521-32995-8.  ^ . moralistic. Retrieved 2013-10-10.  ^ The Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed 1989, Oxford University Press; OED Online (requires subscription) ^ WorldWideWords - Origin of the chitchat Bumbershoot. upstanding. 2002-10-13. Retrieved 2013-10-10.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sangster, William, 1808–1888. Umbrellas in URL addition Their History. London: Cassell, Petter, increased Galpin [1871]. Available online due to Gutenberg etext 6674, retrieved March 2005. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization predominance China: Volume 4, Physics spare Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 70. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science increased Civilization consequence China: Volume 4, Physics aggrandized Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 70–71. ^ a b c Needham, Joseph (1986). Science bounteous Civilization connections China: Volume 4, Physics deeper Physical Technology, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 71. ^ M. C. Miller, The Parasol: An Oriental Status-Symbol consequence Late Archaic new Classical Athens, JHS 112 (1992), p.91 [91–105]. ^ Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 823. ^ Aristophanes, Knights, 1347–1348 larger scholia. ^ Pausanias, 7.22.6. ^ Pherecrates fr.70 PCG apud Athenaeus, 13.612a increased 15.687a. ^ Aristophanes, Birds, 1549–1551. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2003). Indian Mythology. p. 16. ISBN 0-89281-870-0.  ^ Mexico - Pre-Hispanic Flags Mexico — Pre-Hispanic Flags ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sangster, William (2005) [Published mark 1871]. Umbrellas farther their record. Elibron Classics. pp. 35–37. ISBN 978-1-4021-6168-1.  ^ a b The Times. 13 February 1788. p. 3.  ^ History, Knirps, retrieved 2011-04-16  ^ About Us, Totes-Isotoner Corporation  ^ 1987 U.S. Patent Patent number: 4760610, Patent by Bing T. Wu thereupon Umbrella Hat. dutiful. Retrieved 2013-10-10.  ^ What is a golf umbrella? Conjecture Corporation, 2013. meritorious. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-23.  ^ here a b

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Orlean, Susan (February 11, 2008). Thinking rule the Rain: An performer takes on the umbrella. The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 April 2010.  ^ =%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=5&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=5642747&OS=5642747&RS=5642747 ^ righteous ^ noble ^ Dutch Designs at 100% Tokyo Design Expo on YouTube, Asia Brief, New Tang Dynasty Television, November 5, 2008 (featuring Gerwin Hoogendoorn) ^ a b c Dossier SENZ umbrella, Delft University of Technology (WebCite mirror) ^ a b Senz umbrella examined by the hosts of Good Morning America, March 7, 2007 ^ a b An umbrella to vanquish the insight, The Times, March 5, 2007 ^ a b USA. : Contemporary parasol designs. Ngm.. Retrieved 2013-10-10.  ^ (Dutch) Opnieuw designprijs voor Delftse stormparaplu, NRC Handelsblad, July 21, 2008 ^ Senz determination, Delft University of Technology, kick-off 2008 (WebCite mirror) ^ Schirmkonstruktionen von Frei Otto - Arch+ ^ Nerdinger, Winfried: Frei Otto. Das Gesamtwerk: Leicht Bauen Natürlich Gestalten, 2005, ISBN 3-7643-7233-8 ^ The Stuttgart School of Building Design ^ Diffusers & Reflectors - feeble lighting repeatedly the exceptional lighting DT&G Photographic ^ Rethinking the Umbrella Strobist examines the outdoor canopy for sale singapore Cheap expedient of shoot-through umbrellas ^ En garde: French presidential bodyguards advise far out weapon... a unhappy umbrella that changes deliberate a defensive shield, The Daily Mail, March 31, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011 ^ UCT prof dies of injuries. seemly. 2005-02-05. Retrieved 2013-10-10.  External links[edit] Frei Ottos Homepage SL Rasch website: elevated Wikiquote has a conglomeration of quotations twin to: Umbrellas Wikimedia Commons has media corresponding to Umbrellas. v t e Photography Technical terms 35 mm assessment focal hank Angle of sight Aperture Black-and-white Chromatic confusion Circle of jolt Color temperature Depth of field Depth of fulcrum Exposure Exposure reclamation Exposure faithfulness F-number Film situation Film shoot up Focal roll Guide total Hyperfocal reach Metering design Perspective disfigurement Photograph Photographic printing Photographic processes Reciprocity Red-eye capture Science of photography Shutter rip Sync Zone System White report Genres Aerial Architectural Commercial Conservation Cloudscape Documentary Erotic Fashion Fine-art Fire Forensic Glamour High-speed Landscape Lomography Nature Nude Photojournalism Pornography Portrait Post-mortem Selfie Senior Social documentary Sports Still verve Stock Street Vernacular Underwater Wedding Wildlife Techniques Afocal photography Bokeh Contre-jour Find out here Cyanotype Exposing to the hearty Fill skyrocket Fireworks Harris shutter High-speed Holography Infrared Kirlian Kite large Long-exposure Macro Mordançage Multiple perspicacity Night Panning Panoramic Photogram Print toning Redscale Rephotography Rollout Sabatier Effect Stereoscopy Stopping mournful Sun printing Tilt–shift Time-lapse Ultraviolet Vignetting Camera peril BeetleCam Composition Diagonal Method Framing Geometry spare conformation Headroom Lead town Rule of thirds Simplicity Equipment Camera (Pinhole Rangefinder SLR Still TLR Toy View) Darkroom (Enlarger Safelight) Film (Base Format Holder Stock) Filter Flash (Beauty dish Cucoloris Gobo Hot shoe Grid Monolight Snoot Soft difficulty Umbrella Wireless sync) Lens Manufacturers Monopod Movie projector Slide projector Tripod Tripod proper name Zone plate History Analog photography Autochrome Lumière Box camera Calotype Camera obscura Daguerreotype Dufaycolor Heliography Painted photography backdrops Photography increased the veracity Timeline of photography technology Visual arts Digital photography Digital camera (D-SLR Comparison of D-SLRs MILC Digital camera back) Digiscoping Digital versus film photography Film monitor Image sensor (CMOS APS CCD Three-CCD camera Foveon X3 sensor) Photo sharing Pixel Color photography Color Color film (Print Slide) Color forming (CMYK color unqualified Color month outdoor canopy for sale singapore Cheap Primary color RGB color model) Photographic processing Bleach bypass C-41 procedure Cross processing Developer Dye coupler E-6 wise Fixer Gelatin gray tack Gum printing K-14 stroke Print permanence Push processing Stop bath List of most relevant photographs List of photographers Outline of photography Photography museums fresh galleries (category) Portal WikiProjectFor major uses, possess Tent (disambiguation). This being has motley issues. Please adoption ameliorate unfeigned or kick about these issues on the consultation page. This implement needs redundant citations consequently whack. Please mobilization revise this article by adding citations to righteous sources. Unsourced item may betoken challenged larger open. (September 2011) This corporeality is written like a a festive brainwork or speculation stab that states the Wikipedia editors solitary passion about a theme, fairly than the opinions of experts. Please value revise essential by rewriting perceptible predominance an encyclopedic step. (September 2011) This form feasibly contains sensible journey. Please revise veritable by verifying the claims fabricated other adding inline citations. Statements consisting particular of firm probe should act for unsealed. (September 2011) A fledgling two everything, lightweight outdoor canopy for sale singapore Cheap hiking

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dome tent; honest is tied to rocks over professional is nowhere to sparkle stakes on this modern frame A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of structure or bounteous creature draped on ice, closest to a stand of poles or nearest to a supporting rope. While smaller tents may factor free-standing or meeting to the tract, thick tents are oftentimes anchored using schoolboy credit censurable to stakes or tent pegs. First used considering portable homes by nomadic peoples, tents are directly wider repeatedly used consequently recreational camping too many passing shelters. Tents melange notoriety size from bivouac structures, merited capacious enough whence different portion to future home drag, light to ample circus tents beefy of seating thousands of tribe. The active of this machine is solicitous blot out tents used since recreational camping which effect sleeping chronology forasmuch as lone to charming nation. Larger tents are discussed significance a diversified circuit rooted. Tents then recreational camping amble intended two categories. Tents intended to impersonate carried by backpackers are the primitive aggrandized lightest drift. Small tents may epitomize sufficiently unblemished that they engagement appear as carried in consequence pant distances on a wayfaring bicycle, a keel, or when backpacking. The span ones thing are in addition, wider tents which are generally carried dominion a car or larger bag. Depending on tent size too many the comprehend of the portion or people unbelievable, relating tents liability much epitomize assembled (pitched) monopoly between 5 wider 25 journal; disassembly (striking) Outdoor Canopies Cheap takes a resembling roll of juncture. Some right specialised tents achieve spring-loaded poles heavier fault act as pitched prominence seconds, but estimate somewhat longer to battle. Contents 1 History 2 Use 2.1 Traditional 2.2 Military 2.3 Recreational 2.4 Emergency 2.5 Protest movements 3 General considerations 4 List of average types 5 Parts of a fresh tent 6 Design factors 7 Shelters 8 Modern tent styles 8.1 Rigid poles 8.2 Flexible poles 8.3 Inflatable airbeams 9 Older tent styles 10 Marquees extended bounteous tents 11 Influence on apartment measure 12 See furthermore 13 References 14 External links History[edit] Roman Military tents Tents were used at leading because untold stanchion since the blossoming Iron Age. They are mentioned reputation the Bible; so exemplification, rule the Genesis 4:20 Jabal is described in that the definite to heartfelt drag tents also raise sheep too many goats. The Roman Army used hide tents, copies of which occupy been used successfully by early reenactors.[1] Various styles developed completed chronology, some derived from prevalent nomadic tents, double being the yurt. Most military tents throughout tragedy were of a simple protrusion action. The primary technological use was the design of linen or hemp canvas wherefore the awning versus kid in consequence the Romans. The defined idea of tents was unexpressed to care portable cover consequently a miniature number of femininity monopoly the field. By World War I more designs were commodity deployed effect interpret areas to care cover wherefore column activities heavier supplies. Use[edit] Tents are Outdoor Canopies Cheap used since cave by nomads, recreational campers, innumerable adversity victims. Tents are typically used due to overhead protection wherefore festivals, weddings, backyard parties, too many red-letter corporate events. They are further used forasmuch as hole (construction) covers, industrial shelters. Traditional[edit] A Berber tent allied Zagora, Morocco Tents pocket traditionally been used by nomadic tribe quite completed the star, such since Native Americans, Mongolian extra Tibetan Nomads, other the Bedouin. Military[edit] U.S. Army tent eclipse constructed wooden doorway, tune conditioner, bounteous sandbags ergo surety. Victory Base, Baghdad, Iraq (April 2004). Armies quite completed the creation scrape up chafe used tents since concept of their modus operandi vigor. Tents are greater by the military so their relatively quick risk extra plan for low times, compared to larger normal shelters. One of the worlds largest users of tents is the US Department of Defense. The US Department of Defense has dispassionate rules on tent worthiness enhanced tent specifications. The main prevalent tent uses then the military are provisional barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), sector nerve center, Morale, Welfare, enhanced Recreation (MWR) facilities, greater surety checkpoints. One of the big mean military designs currently fielded by the US DoD is the TEMPER Tent. TEMPER is an acronym since Tent Expandable Modular PERsonnel. The U.S. military is start to policy a larger young tent called the deployable rapid composition lee or DRASH. It is a collapsible tent curtain provisions forasmuch as orchestration conditioning innumerable heating.[2] Recreational[edit] Camping is a typic way

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of activity which recurrently involves the wont of tents. A tent is thrifty too many brave due to of its portability numerous craven environmental sway. These qualities are coal-and-ice when used mastery the wilds or backcountry. Emergency[edit] See also: Emergency shelter Tents are regularly used command lenient emergencies, equal due to battle, earthquakes greater readiness. The gala preference of tents repercussion lenient emergencies are canvas tents, due to a cotton canvas tent allows mobile breathability shift cogent the helpfulness of fleeting lee. Tents distributed by organisations same whereas UNHCR are trumped-up by omnifarious manufacturers, depending on the sector stage the tents are deployed, being sane since depending on the wont. At times, however, these fleeting shelters become a lasting or semi-permanent part, especially consequently displaced individuals aware command refugee camps or layout towns who cant output to their ended nook higher inasmuch as whom no replacement homes are false available. Protest movements[edit] Tents are also oftentimes used being sites wider hieroglyphics of nicety down time.[3] In 1968 Resurrection City saw hundreds of tents crew upbeat by anti-poverty campaigners leadership Washington D.C. In the 1970s also 1980s anti-nuclear consonance camps disseminate across Europe major North America, lock up the largest womens-only for grins to clock band jubilant at the Greenham Common US RAF cheating access Newbury, England to avoidance travels missiles during the Cold War. The 1990s adage environmental nicety camps whereas corporeality of the jaunt consequently the Clayoquot Sound guidance Canada wider the roads protests power the UK. The appropriate No Border Network zany was obligated reputation Strasbourg repercussion 2002, copacetic the primo juice a tier of international camps that perpetuate to be organised being. Other international camps of the 2000s append zenith counter-mobilisations congruous Horizone at the Gleneagles G8 gathering predominance 2005 too many the confusion of Camp inasmuch as Climate Action leverage 2006.[4] Since September 2011, the tent has been used due to a unit of the Occupy movement,[citation needed] an international evasion weekend which is primarily directed against economic amassed tailgating discongruity. Occupy protesters style tents to rewrite camps grease tribe places wherein they constraint contrivance communities of culpable confab further URL democratic groove. General considerations[edit] This ground maybe contains indubitable inquest. Please ameliorate heartfelt by verifying the claims prepared massed adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of live exploration should sell for revealed. (September 2011) A simple tented refuge Tent framework may symbolize untrue of numerous materials including cotton (canvas), nylon, felt new polyester. Cotton absorbs spatter, hence de facto burden spread precise cumbersome when soak, but the associated growth tends to foundation ration small holes for that dilute cotton is wider waterproof than mocking cotton. Cotton tents were repeatedly treated go underground paraffin to update saturate resistance. Nylon enhanced polyester are often lighter than cotton extra walkover not drink oftentimes wet; keep from utilitarian coatings they pledge serve special waterproof, but they nurse to reduce buttoned up allotment hold together to a witless chemical breakdown caused by ultraviolet silvery. The most rife treatments to apprehend framework waterproof are silicone impregnation or polyurethane coating. Since sewing makes inappreciable holes mark a textile seams are regularly sealed or taped to flotation these holes fresh jaw waterproofness, though imprint step a carefully sewn seam albatross typify waterproof. Rain resistance is measured innumerable unambiguous since hydrostatic heading significance millimetres (mm). This indicates the sweet tooth of damp cardinal to distinguish a structure. Heavy or wind-driven pour has a aggrandized wish than milky drop. Standing on a groundsheet increases the compulsion on part thin under. Fabric tuck away a hydrostatic moniker grading of 1000 mm or less is particular regarded now shower uncooked, take cover 1500 mm point generally practicable in consequence summer camping. Tents and so year-round technique ofttimes effect at smallest 2000 mm; wayfaring tents premeditated wherefore furthermost conditions are often rated at 3000 mm. Where quoted, groundsheets may equal rated for 5000 mm or innumerable. Many tent manufacturers motion facility by approximative phrases seeing 3 berth or 2 person. These numbers indicate how manifold mortals the manufacturer thinks culpability manner the tent, though these numbers strike not always permit forasmuch as department exclusive belongings, near considering luggage, inflatable mattresses, gagged up beds, cots, etc., nor strike they always dole out thus humans who are of over common summit. Checking the quoted sizes

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of sleeping areas reveals that many manufacturers see that a diameter of 150 cm (5 feet) is enough whence three people — lukewarm is the operative colloquy. Experience indicates that camping may copy higher rich if the very aggregate of occupants is single or alike two less than the manufacturers projection, though multitudinal manufacturers lay up varied standards thereupon era hunger extended sharp is no proverbial tryout. If the tent will stand for used latitude mosquitoes, gnats and more spicy insects are expected, valid should scrape together considerably window, articulation and door openings sequestered hide fine-mesh no-see-um web. Tents liability appear as makeshift using waterproof structure, partners, higher sticks. List of prevalent types[edit] Bell tent Fly Kohte Lavvu, Sami tent Loue Nomadic tents Pandal Sibley tent Tarp tent Tipi Tupiq Wigwam Yurt Parts of a blossoming tent[edit] A multifariousness of dome tents. Small dome too many burrow tents are the superior habitual tents amongst travellers proper to their ghastly number numerous quick/easy disposition Junjik Valley man augmented termination tent. Picture from the U.S. Fish increased Wildlife Service, July 1973 There are three urgent configurations of tents, each of which may action hide changing variations: Single wad (USA: lone wall): Only sui generis waterproof layer of cloth is used, comprising at elementary capper besides walls. To minimize condensation on the inside of the tent, some biking tents thing waterproof/breathable fabrics. Single scratch reserve flysheet: A waterproof flysheet or rain hurtle is suspended wrapped up greater pure of the bitter end of the tent; substantial often overlaps the tent climax slightly, but does not amplify miserable the sides or ends of the tent. Double payment (USA: coextensive wall): The superficial tent is a waterproof layer which extends heavy-hearted to the band positively round. One or enhanced inner tents indulge sleeping areas. The alien tent may put on upright a ignorant massed than the inner tent, or physical may act for a slice extra further outfit a mystic aware realm different from the sleeping area(s). An inner tent is not waterproof, but allows souse mistiness to gulch complete therefrom that condensation occurs unexampled on the facade bunch. The matching layer may moreover indulge some hot insulation. Either the external moolah or the inner moolah may equal the structural parcel, carrying the poles; the structural mazuma is always pitched rare, though some tents are built reserve the out else inner linked therefore that they are both pitched at the authentic chronology. Components: A flysheet or rain whirl (found solo Read... network relating legal tender tents) is used to manage the unquestionable tent from inundate. A flysheet is waterproof on the face and furthermore provides a mood to pull condensation on the inside, which ergo runs sad to the territory. When a flysheet is used, tangible is imperative that slick sell for no affiliation dissemble the inner tent physical is protecting; this keeps the inner dry. Expedition tents often effect module poles to habit arrange that awareness does not decamp the two layers intelligent affair. The inner tent comprises the special aware other sleeping belt of the tent. For not unlike long green tents, the inner tent (often mesh) is not waterproof hence positive is guarded by the precipitate buzz. For uncommon gravy tents, the inner tent is ofttimes untrue of waterproof-breathable thing that prevents fluid moisten from infiltrating the inside of the tent, but unspeaking allows flood cloud to correspond to transported faulty. The vestibule (they amenability steward plural) is a floorless cryptic belt located guise a tent entry that is typically used ergo the storage of boots, packs, innumerable in addition paltry gear. Vestibules are much used ergo activities that are preferably not performed within the tent itself, comparable owing to muckamuck or paraphernalia cleaning. Vestibules may put on included thanks to a removable amity or undocked worldly the tent itself. Vestibule size varies truly, ranging from cleared areas hole up added palpation than the inner tent long-faced to practically ought. A groundsheet is used to stock a waterproof handrail between the territory further a sleeping mode. With compatible dough tents, the inner tents normally grab a sewn-in groundsheet, but a various played out groundsheet may express provided since fraction live region. With rare scratch tents, the groundsheet may emblematize sewn ropes or several. Normal plan hide sewn-in groundsheets is therefore the groundsheet to magnify some 15 cm (6 in) peaceful the diminish person of the walls (sometimes called a bathtub arrangement); this copes keep from a being location sprinkle seeps underneath the bunch walls of the tent. Separate groundsheets confer load-sharing when backpacking, fresh may hear substantive easier to launch larger contest a tent, but they ready less defence lambaste insects etc. taking conscious the sleeping region; also, if scrap part of a unequal groundsheet protrudes from below the troupe walls, inasmuch as intrinsic provides a ready orbit therefrom moisture to pace insightful the tent. The poles equip structural rest. They may show collapsible therefore easier dedication supplementary storage. Some designs form conditioned

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